Atlético more ‘cholista’ reconciles with victory

first_imgPhoto: EFE Atlético de Madrid was reunited with the victory this Saturday thanks to a pyrrhic victory against Granada (1-0) with a goal by Ángel Correa five minutes from the start, but the pupils of the ‘Cholo’ Simeone did not convince a Wanda Metropolitan who ended up suffering the chances of the brand new Copa semifinalist.The mattress set was more ‘cholista’ than ever in a game where Granada deserved better luck in the final stretch. Atleti wasted all his chances in the first part and was very conformist in the second. Simeone himself did not know how to give air to his players in the most delicate moments of the match.The casualties remain the main handicap of this Atlético that showed its two faces: that of the collective effort, which taught it in the first part, and that of suffering with the adjusted score. His rival was gaining meters and found good chances that he had to stop Oblak. The clearest, one of Soldier 20 minutes to go.The film began well for the people of Madrid thanks to an error by Eteki and Foulquier, who collided with each other and gave Koke wings to enable Correa before Aaron. The Argentine – who achieved his fourth goal in the League – has scored the last three goals of the Atleti and returned to be fundamental in the offensive harvest. A goal by Correa ends the bad run and grabs a good Granadacenter_img The goal at six minutes seemed to open a different game, more comfortable than on other occasions, especially at the insistence of Vitolo. The canary was the best creating problems for the Nazari team with a ball to the post and another play that ended in goal but was canceled out of play. The definition had been perfect, but the VAR evidenced the advanced position of the Las Palmas player.Suffering in the second part In the second part, Atlético de Madrid was not able to sentence the game and gave life to Granada. Those of Diego Martínez, who add eight consecutive losses away from Los Cármenes, were not far from changing the statistics, but first Oblak and then the bad aim of their strikers, deprived the Andalusians of opting for at least a draw.Vadillo was the one who tried for the first time with a foul from the front and Azeez pardoned in the heart of the area ten minutes after the restart. Saul replied with a powerful volley to a Correa squad, but it was Soldier who had the clearest opportunity with a foreshortening that forced the stretcher of the mattress goalkeeper.From there, with the pitos of many sectors in the Wanda, the Athletic one was closing and it only breathed with the entrance of Carrasco. Some against the Belgian allowed to break the dominance of Granada, which ended the game by locking Atleti in his area with a header from Víctor Díaz. Simeone’s team regains its ‘Champions’ position while waiting for the result of Sevilla, while Granada looks at the Cup semifinals next week.DATA SHEETATHLETIC OF MADRID: Oblak; Vrsaljko, Savic, Hermoso, Lodi (Carrasco, min. 59); Llorente, Thomas, Koke (Lemar, min, 87), Saul; Vitolo (Toni Moya, min. 87) and Correa.GRANADA: Aaron; Foulquier, Martínez (Carlos Fernández, min. 75), Duarte, Víctor Díaz; Ismail, Azeez, Eteki, Yangel Herrera (Gil Dias, min. 59); Vadillo (Doors, min. 59) and Soldier.–GOAL:1 – 0, min. 6, Strap.–REFEREE: Soto Grado (C. Riojano). He admonished Herrera (min. 26), Soldier (min. 27), Foulquier (min. 36), Duarte (min. 84) and Ismail (min. 90) in Granada; and to Koke (min. 28), Thomas (min. 68), Vrsaljko (min. 69) and Vitolo (min. 86) in Atlético.–STADIUM: Wanda Metropolitano. 54,113 spectators.last_img read more

The changing face of Amazon development: from land grab to eco-lodge

first_imgWe have almost a third of the birds in Brazil in this region, which means about 600 species, and we’re still finding new ones”, says Vitória da Riva Carvalho with quiet pride, sitting by the tinkling waters of a fountain in the lush, elegant garden of her luxury hotel on the outskirts of the town of Alta Floresta (High Forest), in northernmost Mato Grosso state.It was this vast host of singing and soaring birds that played a key role in establishing Riva Carvalho’s successful — and now world-renowned ­— ecotourism project, Cristalino Jungle Lodge.An Agami heron (Agamia agami) inside the eco-resort reserve. While conservation has been good for wildlife and for the rainforest, it hasn’t done much to help indigenous and traditional groups. Photo by Jorge Lopes“In 1989, Ted Parker [a famed American ornithologist] visited us and loved the place”, remembered Riva Carvalho. He noted that her Amazonian hotel was at the same latitude as Peru, one of the most biologically diverse country on earth, and that its surroundings held a wealth of species.“We began to take off after Ted’s visit”, recalled Riva Carvalho. Parker spread the word and international birders started visiting, as did other nature lovers. “We have about 1,500 species of butterflies, the greatest diversity in Brazil, and many more extraordinary things”, Riva Carvalho boasted.“Birds and animals don’t cross the Amazon’s large rivers so we [also] have niches of endemic species. For instance, the white-whiskered spider money (Ateles marginatus), only found in a fairly small area between the Tapajós and Tocantins Rivers.”A lodge visit is expensive, attracting mainly Europeans and Americans. But for those with money, the eco-resort provides a magical experience. A biologist guide enhances walks through the exuberant rainforest, describing the many tree species, some towering 30-40 meters (100-130 feet). Walks include a clamber up a 50-meter (160 foot) tower which looms above the canopy, from which guests catch sight of flocks of scarlet macaws, and if lucky, a harpy eagle.Overnight, visitors stay in the 18-apartment eco-lodge, cleverly designed to make all feel that they’re in the heart of the forest. Great effort has been made to reduce the lodge’s carbon footprint, with the use of solar panels, ventilators and an ingenious sanitation system in which the roots of banana trees and heliconia plants absorb nutrients and detoxify sewage.Ecotourism built atop a darker family legacyTo the foreign visitor, lacking knowledge of the clash between Brazilian and Amazonian cultures, the success of the Cristalino Jungle Lodge is, on the surface, a simple feel-good story, perfect for the Sunday Times travel supplement: Local green businesswoman establishes one of the world’s best eco-lodges. In truth, the ecotourism project, with all its attractive features, sits at the peaceful end of an often violent land expropriation process in which Vitória’s father, Ariosto da Riva, played a key role — he is often described as “the last of the bandeirantes”, the violent adventurers who first penetrated Brazil’s hinterland in the 16th and 17th centuries in search of gold.It’s a history marked by a vicious struggle over land, with underdog indigenous communities and traditional peasant families on one side; and land speculators, loggers, ranchers, and soy growers on the other — and with both sides seeking support from the authorities.César Estevo, a biologist guide at the eco-lodge, looks out over the Amazon rainforest canopy from the resort’s tower. Photo by Thais BorgesNumerous studies by archaeologists have long confirmed the intense indigenous occupation of the Tapajós and Teles Pires river valleys in which the Cristalino Jungle Lodge now stands. And a flurry of studies by ethnobotanists have shown that — through careful management over centuries — the Indians played an important role in creating the abundance of the Amazonian forest, a fecundity that led early explorers to regard this region as “an earthly paradise untouched by man”.But Brazil’s military dictatorship (1964-1985) knew nothing of this and stoutly maintained that no one lived in the rainforest. It was during their rule that one of the most violent processes of indigenous expropriation took place in this region in the 1960s and 1970s as part of a military drive to “occupy the Amazon”.That story can be told through Ariosto da Riva’s life. Born in 1915, he left his home in São Paulo state at age 17 to prospect for diamonds in the north of Brazil. Ariosto then worked for, and learned well from, Geremia Lunardelli, a fortune hunter who set up suspect land deals and settlements in the north of the state of Paraná.In the mid-1960s, Ariosto received generous funding from Sudam (The Amazon Development Superintendency) to open up a region for settlement between the headwaters of the Araguaia and Xingu rivers in the northeast part of Mato Grosso state. There he established the Suia-Missu ranch, covering 450,000 hectares (1,737 square miles).From the start, he was embroiled in conflict with the Xavante Indians, who refused contact with outsiders trying to take land that they had occupied for centuries. Ariosto and other new arrivals became increasingly angry at the indigenous resistance, with the Suia-Missu ranch manager complaining that the Indians were stealing knives, axes and manioc flour.Ariosto da Riva is well thought of in the town of Alta Floresta, so much so that he has earned a statue. Critics see him as an unscrupulous land speculator who could be ruthless in his dealings. Photo by Thais BorgesIn an egregious abuse of power, the military stepped in and in 1966 airlifted out 300 troublemaking Indians. Shortly afterwards 80 Indians died in a measles epidemic. Indian survivors fled to other areas occupied by the Xavantes in southern Mato Grosso, about 400 kilometers (250 miles) from their original homeland.Rid of the Indians, Ariosto da Riva increased the size of his ranch to about 800,000 hectares (3,089 square miles) or as much as 1.7 million hectares (6,563 square miles) according to some accounts, making it the largest in Brazil at the time. But the last of the bandeirantes was far more interested in clinching profitable land deals than in farming, and he sold his ranch in the 1970s to the Italian-owned cattle breeding company, Liquifarm do Brasil, which then sold it to an Italian oil company, Agip Petroli.During the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, Agip Petroli, under pressure from environmentalists in Italy, handed 165,000 hectares (407,000 acres) of land back to the Xavante, who renamed it Marãiwatséde (“Thick Forest”). The Brazilian Indian agency, Funai, began an anthropological study to decide just how much land rightly belonged to the Indians.That might seem a happy ending for the Xavante, except that a number of new, supposed landowners, whose property was going to be handed back to the Indians, refused to go.A map showing the location of the Cristalino Jungle Lodge (RPPN Cristalino), the adjoining Parque Estadual do Cristalino (which has seen illegal logging and land grabs), as well as indigenous reserves. The region has a history of contentious land conflict and violence. Map by Mauricio TorresThe Xavante indigenous reserve was created in the 1990s, but the landowners were only forcibly removed in 2015, after years of conflict. The animosity became so intense that it put at risk the life of Dom Pedro Casaldáliga, a left-wing Spanish bishop, who had been one of the Xavantes’ few supporters during their long years of exile. In 2012, the bishop, by then 84 years old and suffering from Parkinsons disease, received death threats and had to be taken out of the region for his own safety.The long-running conflict didn’t end there. While the supposed landowners have been removed, they remain strong. And many feel particularly emboldened since 2016, when President Michel Temer began implementing anti-indigenous policies that are causing huge resentment within indigenous reserves. Cattle raising is still the dominant invasive activity in this part of the state, but soy production is also moving in rapidly.After he sold Suiá-Missu, Ariosto moved further west in Mato Grosso. He formed a company called INDECO (Integration, Development and Colonization) and, as in the past, bought huge tracts. According to University of São Paulo geographer Ariovaldo Umbelino de Oliveira, he purchased “500,000 hectares in 1971 for 15 cruzeiros a hectare (that is, the price of six packets of cigarettes)”, and two years later he “bought 400,000 hectares from an area belonging to the state government for only 50 cruzeiros a hectare”.He set up three colonization projects within this nearly one million hectare (3,861 square mile) area: Alta Floresta, Paranaíta and Apiacás”. According to the government, these projects were efficiently run; a parliamentary enquiry carried out in 1977 reported that INDECO was the only company that surpassed its targets in terms of families it settled.The next generationAriosto is regarded by some critics as a hard-headed, unscrupulous businessman, out for quick profits, but his daughter Riva Carvalho, understandably, has a different view: “My father was often misunderstood”, she told us on a visit to Cristalino Jungle Lodge last November.“He always wanted to set up a sustainable farming project. Indeed, in the beginning, my brother worked with the settlers to cultivate guaraná and cacao in the forest and to collect Brazil nuts”. But it was a difficult time in Brazil, with high inflation. “Many settlers went off to pan for gold, thinking they would get rich quick. Of course, they didn’t. But when they came back, they didn’t want to plant crops [in the Amazon rainforest] so they cleared the land and reared cattle. The whole project lost its original intention.”Vitoria da Riva Carvalho, the founder and proprietor of the Cristalino Jungle Lodge, and daughter of Ariosto da Riva. The luxury hotel and eco-lodge are on the outskirts of Alta Floresta, a frontier town to which Ariosto da Riva enticed settlers. Photo by Thais BorgesBut this story is disputed: geographer and professor Ariovaldo Umbelino de Oliveira reports that the influx of garimpeiros, the wildcat goldminers, benefited Alta Floresta. “When the garimpo [gold mine] grew, the city grew”, he explained, and Ariosto knew this and profited from the growth: “While he publicly defended the settlements and tilling the land, even waiters in restaurants in the town can tell you stories that tell you something very different.”When Riva Carvalho began thinking about ecotourism in the late 1980s, huge swathes of Amazon rainforest were still being felled by cattle ranchers, and the rural district of Alta Floresta alone had 700,000 head of cattle, the fourth highest in the state of Mato Grosso.One of the 18 apartments at the Cristalino Jungle Lodge in Alta Floresta (High Forest), in northernmost Mato Grosso state. Photo by Luis GomesRapid development there was alarming environmentalists, as the region around Alta Floresta had been classified by biologists as “one of extreme importance for the conservation of biodiversity”. That is because it is located on the edge of the so-called “arc of devastation”, a band of largely protected forest that marks the transition from cerrado — now mostly developed savanna — to the much more intact Amazon rainforest.This arc sweeps in a crescent from east-to-west across northern Brazil — beginning in eastern Pará state, running through the north of Tocantins and Mato Grosso states, ending in Rondônia and Acre in the west. It earned this name because for many years it was the region where the most deforestation was occurring, with the arrival of the agricultural frontier.In 2011 the government created the Parque Estadual do Cristalino (Cristalino State Park), covering 118,000 hectares (450 square miles). It is part of a gigantic buffer zone that includes to the west a biological reserve and the Kayabi/Munduruku indigenous territory, as well as a military facility to the north of 2.2 million hectares (8,494 square miles), known as the Cachimbo Air Base; along with the Menkragnoti indigenous territory to the east and northeast. It is hoped that this zone will act as a major barrier to future illegal deforestation.Riva Carvalho, an enthusiastic supporter of this government land protection effort, owns 11,399 hectares (28,167 acres) of rainforest directly adjacent to Cristalino State Park, which she has dubbed the Cristalino Lodge Forest Reserve. However, most of her land isn’t a reserve in the official sense. Despite the impression given on the lodge’s website, Riva Carvalho only turned a fraction of her property, 670 hectares or 1,655 acres, into an RPPN (Private Natural Heritage Reserve) in 1997 — an irreversible step, with no logging permitted now or in the future. The website claim is easily discounted by a look at the measure creating the RPPN lote Cristalino.Toward an uneasy peaceThe creation of the Cristalino State Park was not enough to preserve it fully in this lawless Amazon region. The government failed to provide adequate park protection, and land thieves began to invade. In 2005, SEMA, the state government’s environmental department, fined 17 people for illegally clearing land within the park.An aerial view of the canopy tower from which guests can sight flocks of scarlet macaws and other birds. Photo by Jorge LopesThose fined included Antônio José Junqueira Vilela, known as AJJ, a notorious land thief and a national icon for the amount of beef he produced. AJJ received SEMA’s then largest fine ever for illegally clearing 40,000 hectares (154.4 square miles) of park land.Then in 2006, state deputies pushed a bill through the Mato Grosso State Assembly to remove an area from the park (almost certainly the territory wanted by AJJ), and, in compensation, attached Riva Carvalho’s Cristalino Lodge Forest Reserve to the park. However, after loud protests — including an “SOS-License to Deforest Cristalino” plea distributed in Brazil and abroad by Riva Carvalho and others ­­— the state governor, who by then was Blairo Maggi, decided to veto the bill.It was reported in the press at the time that to placate AJJ (one of Maggi’s backers) Blairo Maggi made a deal with him, giving an official stamp of approval to two small hydrodams AJJ had built illegally near the park.Maggi’s veto was, in turn, overturned by the legislative assembly. But in January 2007, a state judge, José Zuquim Nogueira, intervened suspending the reduction in park size.Since then, there has been an uneasy peace. And Riva Carvalho has pushed ahead with her eco-lodge. But ecotourism in a region that was so recently emptied of most of its indigenous people is an issue that provokes passions. To some, particularly foreign birders and tourists, Riva Carvalho is a courageous eco-warrior, valiantly defending her beloved rainforest from further devastation. To others, particularly Brazilian social activists, she is judged more harshly as carrying on in her father’s tradition of exploitation, except that she knows that money made from the Amazon forest today needs to be greenwashed.Whatever the truth, Riva Carvalho told us that she reconciled with her father just before his death in 1992; Ariosto da Riva said then of her Amazon vision: “Vitória, you are right.” Ariosto da Riva was often described as “the last of the bandeirantes”, the violent adventurers who first penetrated the Brazilian Amazon in the 16th century in search of gold. Working with Brazil’s military dictatorship (1964-1985), he owned a million hectares of forest, pushed indigenous people from their lands, and brought in settlers.His daughter, Vitória da Riva Carvalho, though wealthy, did not buy into his legacy. She is noted instead for her strong defense of the rainforest and for her world-renowned ecotourism destination, the Cristalino Jungle Lodge, located outside the town of Alta Floresta — which her father settled — in northernmost Mato Grosso state.The evolution of the relationship between father and daughter helps trace the unfolding land conflicts that have smouldered and exploded in the Amazon between indigenous and traditional peoples on one side; and land speculators, land grabbers, loggers, settlers and soy growers on the other.Today, most of the indigenous people who lived in the region where the Cristalino Jungle Lodge entertains its wealthy guests are gone — dead, pushed into indigenous reserves, or retreated elsewhere. But for now, the rainforest and much extraordinary biodiversity remains, with people like Vitória da Riva Carvalho as its stewards. The rainforest surrounding the Cristalino Jungle Lodge is world-renowned for its biodiversity, with over 600 bird species, and more than 1,500 butterfly species. It draws birders and nature lovers from all over the planet. Photo by Thais Borges(Leia essa matéria em português no The Intercept Brasil. You can also read Mongabay’s series on the Tapajós Basin in Portuguese at The Intercept Brasil)The Tapajós River Basin lies at the heart of the Amazon, and at the heart of an exploding controversy: whether to build 40+ large dams, a railway, and highways, turning the Basin into a vast industrialized commodities export corridor; or to curb this development impulse and conserve one of the most biologically and culturally rich regions on the planet.Those struggling to shape the Basin’s fate hold conflicting opinions, but because the Tapajós is an isolated region, few of these views get aired in the media. Journalist Sue Branford and social scientist Mauricio Torres travelled there recently for Mongabay, and over coming weeks hope to shed some light on the heated debate that will shape the future of the Amazon. This is the eighth of their reports. (Leia essa matéria em português no The Intercept Brasil. You can also read Mongabay’s series on the Tapajós Basin in Portuguese at The Intercept Brasil)FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Amazon Biodiversity, Amazon Conservation, Amazon Destruction, Amazon People, Birding, Corruption, Ecotourism, Environment, Environmental Politics, Featured, Forests, Indigenous Cultures, Indigenous Groups, Indigenous Peoples, Indigenous Rights, Infrastructure, Land Conflict, Land Grabbing, Land Rights, Land Use Change, Rainforest Deforestation, Rainforest Destruction, Rainforests, Saving The Amazon, Social Justice, Threats To The Amazon, Tourism center_img Article published by Glenn Scherer Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Forest fragmentation may be releasing much more carbon than we think

first_imgArticle published by Morgan Erickson-Davis Many tropical forests around the world have been severely fragmented as human disturbance split once-contiguous forests into pieces. Previous research indicates trees on the edges of these fragments have higher mortality rates than trees growing in the interiors of forests.Researchers used satellite data and analysis software they developed to figure out how many forest fragments there are, and the extent of their edges. They discovered that there are around 50 million tropical forest fragments in the world today; their edges add up to about 50 million kilometers – about a third of the way from the earth to the sun.When they calculated how much carbon is being released from tree death at these edges, they found a 31 percent increase from current tropical deforestation estimates. The earth’s forests have been broken into around 50 million fragments, the edges of which add up to a length that would make it a third of the way to the sun and which increase annual tropical deforestation carbon emissions by 31 percent. This, according to a new study published recently in Nature Communications that reveals forest fragmentation may be much more destructive than previously thought.A few hundred years ago, most large tropical forests stood vast and largely undisturbed. But since then, agriculture and extractive industries have moved in, whittling away forests to make room for cattle pasture and soy fields, palm oil plantations and acacia concessions.Today, owing primarily to human pressures, many of the world’s tropical forests exist as a collection of remnants. The Atlantic Forest is one of these. Once covering a huge swath of the eastern coast of Brazil and into Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina, the Atlantic Forest (called Mata Atlântica in Portuguese) has largely disappeared, and some researchers estimate just 3.5 percent may still remain – mostly as fragments interspersed in an expanse of pasture and cropland.Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Photo by Rhett A. ButlerResearch has shown that forest fragmentation can have dire effects on wildlife, leading to higher extinction rates than if a forest is simply reduced in size while remaining in one piece. But how fragmentation affects carbon emissions is something that scientists haven’t been able to grasp – until now.Enter researchers with the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research and the University of Maryland. They drew on previous studies that showed tree mortality in tropical forests was affected significantly by where they trees were, with trees on the edges of forests having double the chances of dying in a given year. This is because vegetation at edges is exposed to harsher conditions like stronger wind, more intense solar radiation, and lower humidity than trees in the interior of forests. The research showed that this wasn’t only affecting periphery trees, but also tree as far as a hundred meters into forests.“Large trees suffer most from this development, because they are reliant on a good supply of water,” said Andreas Huth of the Hemholtz Center, coauthor of the study released this week.But how much is this fragmentation edge effect contributing to carbon emissions and, thus, global warming? To find out, Huth and his colleagues developed their own software to analyze satellite data and determine just how many forest edges human disturbance has created.Turns out, it’s a lot – around 50 million kilometers of edges for as many fragments. Placed end-to-end, these forest edges would make it about a third of the way from the earth to the sun. According to the study’s findings, 19 percent of the world’s tropical forests are currently 100 meters (328 feet) or less from a forest edge.Current estimates peg the volume of carbon emissions from the clearing of tropical forests at around 1,100 million metric tons annually. Using field data and computer modeling, the team calculated 340 million more metric tons of carbon may be released globally due to forest edge effects. In other words, the study finds forest fragmentation may be contributing 31 percent more carbon to the atmosphere than previous estimates are accounting for.The study highlighted three regions the researchers found had particularly high carbon emissions from forest fragmentation: El Salvador/Guatemala, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Sumatra in Indonesia. Image from Brinck et al., 2017Tree cover data from the University of Maryland show dense forest straddling the border between El Salvador and Guatemala exists largely as fragments, with tree cover loss around their edges.The east-central portion of the Democratic Republic of Congo is severely deforested, with its primary forest existing as fragments and strips. Satellite data indicate tree cover loss is ongoing in the region.Industrial agriculture has supplanted much of Sumatra’s forests, particularly in the south of the island. What primary forest is fragmented, with University of Maryland data indicating significant tree cover loss in these fragments between 2001 and 2015.“Fragmentation therefore plays an important role in the global carbon cycle,” Huth said. “Despite this fact, this effect has not been taken into consideration at all in the IPCC reports to date.”The IPCC to which Huth is referring is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the international body responsible for assessing science related to climate change. The IPCC’s findings provide the scientific scaffolds that inform policymakers and underlie the negotiations at the UN Climate Conference – the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC). One component of the UNFCCC is REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), a program that aims to keep tropical forests in the ground – and, thus, carbon out of the atmosphere – by providing financial incentives to the developing countries that contain them.The researchers hope the influence of forest fragmentation on carbon emissions will be taken into account when it comes to climate change policies and programs.“Our analyses show that forest fragmentation augments carbon emissions beyond those caused by deforestation,” they write in their study. “Although we expect that our study bases on conservative assumptions, they are already substantial enough to highlight the importance of forest fragmentation in the global carbon balance.” Citations:Brinck, K., Fischer, R., Groeneveld, J., Lehmann, S., De Paula, M. D., Pütz, S., … & Huth, A. (2017). High resolution analysis of tropical forest fragmentation and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Nature Communications, 8, 14855.Hansen, M. C., P. V. Potapov, R. Moore, M. Hancher, S. A. Turubanova, A. Tyukavina, D. Thau, S. V. Stehman, S. J. Goetz, T. R. Loveland, A. Kommareddy, A. Egorov, L. Chini, C. O. Justice, and J. R. G. Townshend. 2013. “High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change.” Science 342 (15 November): 850–53. Data available on-line from:http://earthenginepartners.appspot.com/science-2013-global-forest. Accessed through Global Forest Watch on March 31, 2017. www.globalforestwatch.orgMargono, B.A., P.V. Potapov, S. Turubanova, F. Stolle, and M.C. Hansen. “Indonesia primary forest.” Accessed through Global Forest Watch on March 31, 2017. www.globalforestwatch.orgObservatoire Satellital des forêts d’Afrique centrale, South Dakota State University, and University of Maryland. “Democratic Republic of the Congo primary forests”. Accessed through Global Forest Watch on March 31, 2017. www.globalforestwatch.orgFEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the editor of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Agriculture, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Emissions, Cattle, Cattle Pasture, Climate Change, Deforestation, Environment, Forest Fragmentation, Forests, Fragmentation, Global Warming, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Industrial Agriculture, Mata Atlantica, Pasture, Plantations, Primary Forests, Rainforests, Redd, Research, Tropical Forests Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Rare barking deer photographed in Vietnam

first_imgThis is only the third site in Vietnam where the giant (or large-antlered) muntjak has been photographed in the last decade, conservationists say.The giant muntjac is the largest species of muntjac, or barking deer.It lives a cryptic life in the remote rainforests of the Annamite Mountain range in Southeast Asia.Overhunting and habitat loss has wiped out the muntjac from across most of its previous range. The extremely rare giant muntjac is hanging by a thread in Vietnam. But there may be some hope for the critically endangered species.During a short camera trap survey conducted between December 2016 and February 2017, conservationists photographed the giant muntjak (Muntiacus vuquangensis) in Lang Biang Biosphere Reserve in south-central Vietnam. This is only the third site in Vietnam where this muntjak, or barking deer, has been photographed in the last decade, conservationists say.“There have been tens of thousands of ‘camera-trap days’ of effort in the Vietnamese Annamites, and we’ve only seen a few photos of the large-antlered muntjac in the last 15 years,” R. J. Timmins, Saola Working Group (SWG) member who was involved in the surveys, said in a statement. “It’s really exciting to get photos of this very rare species with only 14 cameras and little over a month of effort. It suggests the site maybe the best chance for conserving the species in Vietnam.”Female large-antlered muntjac camera-trapped in the Lang Biang Biosphere Reserve. Photo courtesy of the Southern Institute of Ecology and the Saola Working Group.The giant muntjac, as its name suggests, is the largest species of barking deer. It lives a cryptic life in the remote rainforests of the Annamite Mountain range in Southeast Asia, a chain of mountains running along the border of the Vietnam and Lao PDR. The Annamite mountains are home to some of the world’s most recent mammal discoveries, including the giant muntjac that was first recorded there in 1994. The Saola and Annamite Striped Rabbit are some of the other recent discoveries from the region.Unfortunately, overhunting and habitat loss has wiped out the muntjac from across most of its previous range. While there is insufficient data to estimate current accurate population numbers of the barking deer, the species probably lives in small populations at very low densities, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Last year, the IUCN up-listed the species from endangered to critically endangered.The camera traps have also captured other threatened species, including Owston’s civet, Germain’s peacock pheasant, crested argus and hog badger.“This preliminary survey demonstrates that Lang Biang Biosphere Reserve could be a key site not just for the survival of the large-antlered muntjac but also for other rare species that have disappeared from other parts of Vietnam,” Andrew Tilker, doctoral student at the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, and Global Wildlife Conservation associate conservation scientist, said in the statement. “These photos have captured more than just one individual large-antlered muntjac — they have captured hope for the future for this species and many others.”The survey was conducted by Vietnam-based Southern Institute of Ecology (SIE) in collaboration with the Saola Working Group, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research and Global Wildlife Conservation.Large-antlered muntjak have been hunted to near extinction. Photo courtesy of the Southern Institute of Ecology and the Saola Working Group.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Article published by Shreya Dasgupta Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredcenter_img Animals, Biodiversity, Conservation, Critically Endangered Species, Endangered Species, Environment, Forests, Happy-upbeat Environmental, Mammals, Rainforests, Tropical Forests, Wildlife last_img read more

Connectivity and coexistence key to orangutan survival on croplands

first_imgAgriculture, Animals, Apes, Biodiversity, Conflict, Conservation, Ecology, Endangered Species, Environment, Farming, Featured, Forests, Great Apes, Happy-upbeat Environmental, Industrial Agriculture, Mammals, Orangutans, Palm Oil, Primates, Rainforests, Tropical Forests, Wildlife, Wildlife Conservation Orangutans are in drastic decline, largely due to habitat loss. From 1973–2010, Borneo lost 39 percent of its forests; estimates say that another 37 percent of orangutan-suitable habitat will be converted to agricultural use there through 2025. Similarly, 60 percent of habitat suitable for Sumatran orangutans was lost between 1985 and 2007.If orangutans are to survive in the wild through the 21st century, researchers will need to discover ways in which the animals can be helped to coexist with humans within agricultural landscapes. Researchers are also looking for creative ways to provide connectivity between remaining forest patches to promote and preserve genetic resilience.Scientists Gail Campbell-Smith, Marc Ancrenaz and others have shown that orangutans can use croplands, including oil palm plantations, if humans work to prevent conflict. Noise deterrents, such as bamboo cannon guns, along with the education of farm laborers and agribusiness companies, are techniques helping to reduce animal-human conflicts.Researcher Marc Ancrenaz and colleagues provided orangutans and other arboreal wildlife with rope bridges over small rivers in Malaysia — a successful approach to providing connectivity. It took four years for orangutans to begin using the bridges, but now young orangutan males use the structures to disperse more widely. An orangutan using a fire hose bridge over a small river in Malaysia. Creating connectivity between agricultural lands and remaining forest patches is vital to preserving genetic resilience in species such as orangutans. Photo by Yosuke OtaniCritically Endangered orangutans live in a part of the world where pristine forest is rapidly disappearing under human cultivation. From 1973–2010, Borneo lost 39 percent of its forests, and estimates are that another 37 percent of orangutan-suitable habitat will be converted to agricultural use there through 2025. Similarly, 60 percent of habitat suitable for Sumatran orangutans was lost between 1985 and 2007. If current trends continue, both species will have decreased in numbers by over 80 percent by 2025 — with habitat loss still being one of the greatest drivers of that decline.So it is vital, if these great apes are to survive for decades to come, to understand how we can help them coexist alongside and among us today, especially within the agricultural landscape.It was previously assumed that forest-dwelling orangutans wouldn’t be able to adapt to living in human-altered croplands. But more recently, researchers have conducted studies that have come to somewhat more encouraging conclusions.Work by Marc Ancrenaz, Gail Campbell-Smith and their colleagues has shown that, in some cases, orangutans can make use of croplands, including oil palm plantations, if humans work to prevent conflict appropriately. Both scientists are also seeking solutions to the issue of forest fragmentation — helping animals to more easily travel between remaining patches of forest habitat.Orangutans are arboreal animals, able to easily swing from tree to tree. But conflicts with humans often occur on the ground when the animals are moving between widely separated trees in agricultural landscapes. That’s when the animals encounter surprised and often frightened humans who react with violence. Education of farm workers is a way to prevent that conflict. Photo courtesy of KOCP/HUTANBridging the gapThere’s growing awareness that conservation can’t rely exclusively on protecting, and leaving alone, what little natural habitat remains. Conservationists must also think about how to modify human-disturbed landscapes to help wildlife survive there, and to aid animals in moving through agricultural lands from one piece of good habitat to another.In many parts of the world, wildlife corridors and artificial wildlife bridges are catching on, and researchers are finding that a habitat connectivity-assist that can work for the Florida panther or Gee’s Golden langur in India can work for orangutans too.For example, the removal of large forest trees along the major tributaries of the Kinabatangan River in Sabah, Malaysia, meant that populations of arboreal species, such as orangutans and gibbons, would be trapped on one side or the other of the streams.“Orangutans cannot swim, so what they do when they want to cross small rivers is to use natural bridges, like big trees whose branches are creating bridges over rivers,” says Marc Ancrenaz, scientific director at HUTAN, The Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Programme (HUTAN-KOCP) “When the large trees that are bordering the river are cut down, these natural bridges disappear, so the orangutans cannot cross anymore.”Ancrenaz and his colleagues found a novel solution to this problem with an unexpected source: “We visited the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. and saw the orangutans were using artificial bridges to move across the zoo,” Ancrenaz recalls. There, on what’s known as the O-Line, orangutans swing over the heads of delighted zoo visitors on cables that stretch from one building to another.The O-Line at Washington D.C.’s National Zoo that inspired the fire hose bridges in Malaysia. Photo by Linda LombardiThe HUTAN-KOCP team went to work back in Sahah, and used old fire hoses donated by Japanese zoos to construct several styles of bridge over the Kinabatangan tributaries; some were simple with just one or two ropes, others more complex.While some species started using the bridges almost immediately, orangutans appeared more cautious. “For the first few years, monkeys were using these bridges a lot — macaques, proboscis, and other species. Orangutans and gibbons never used them,” he remembers. “Then suddenly, after four years, we started to see orangutans crossing.”The bridges appeared to serve a different, but important, function for the orangutans. Monkeys commuted back and forth daily. In contrast, young orangutan males use the structures to disperse. This is critical in helping maintain the genetic diversity of great ape populations.The Sabah bridges share something other than functionality with their original National Zoo O-Line inspiration: the Malaysian bridges have become a tourist attraction too, with people on boat cruises thrilled to look up and see wildlife moving across the rivers.Like any human structure, maintenance is needed. The fire hoses degraded quickly, so they’ve been replaced by the more durable, non-biodegradable rope used to lash containers in place on cargo ships, an idea gleaned from another zoo. “It’s much lighter than the fire hoses, and once it’s set up the [ropes] last longer,” Ancrenaz says.Of course, any conservationists inspired to employ this technique elsewhere need to be aware of a potential downside: the bridge-using animals are easily seen, which attracts people. “We don’t have much problem with poaching [in our area], but if you set these up in places where hunters are active, it’s a good spot for poachers,” he warns.An orangutan debarking a rubber tree. Scientists are seeking ways in which orangutans and humans can coexist on croplands with minimal crop damage and minimum conflict. Photo © Miran Campbell-SmithLife on the farmWhile connectivity between remaining patches of forest is important for encouraging genetic resilience, more is needed to create a safe environment for day-to-day living, and mutually beneficial human-orangutan coexistence. A fully informed conservation strategy needs to consider how wildlife can utilize cultivated lands adjacent to forest habitat, and how to successfully mitigate human-animal conflict.“In Sumatra, what I found was that local farmers could actually live in harmony with orangutans in their landscape,” says Gail Campbell-Smith, who studied humans and orangutan interactions in a part of North Sumatra, Indonesia where small farms predominated.She saw that both sides were able to modify their behaviors in order to coexist: the animals could make use of crops for part of their diet and develop behaviors to avoid humans, while farmers could be persuaded to allow some crop loss via education and assistance with conflict mitigation.When she first arrived on site, Campbell-Smith found an orangutan population that had been hanging on among the farms for over twenty years, though most had wounds from being shot at with air rifles.“There was a level of tolerance — [the orangutans] were still alive and still breeding — but you could see from the pellet wounds that there had been some form of conflict,” she says. “I wanted to find out exactly what the conflict was, and how we could try to reduce it with strategies that were farmer-friendly, economically viable, and easy to do.”“Easy to do” turned out to be critical to the project’s success. The most effective conflict-prevention strategy, for example, was to install a protective net system. While the nets preserved nearly 100 percent of the local fruit crop, farmers found it too labor intensive.They much preferred the noise deterrent — a bamboo cannon gun, which could be used to steer the great apes away from farmlands. Although this method resulted in some crop loss, those small losses were acceptable to the farmers.Orangutan climbing a tree at Gail Campbell-Smith’s study site. The researcher developed conflict avoidance techniques including a bamboo cannon gun as an animal noise deterrent. Photo by © Miran Campbell-SmithThere was an unexpected but very welcome outcome to Campbell-Smith’s work: farmers who participated in the study ended up having a more positive attitude toward the orangutans. While most farmers previously wanted the great apes relocated, they now preferred to leave them be and to use strategies like the cannon guns to protect their crops.On the orang-side of things, the scientist found that the animals had also adapted. They changed the timing of their foraging behavior, going after crops in the late afternoon or evening when nearly all the farmers had left the croplands and returned to their villages for the day. The result: conflict reduction.The study found that the orangutans relied on cultivated crops for only about 21 percent of their diet, showing that continued access to adjacent forest fragments for wild food was still critical.While it’s good news to know that human-great ape coexistence can work, Campbell-Smith emphasizes that connectivity is also essential for long-term survival. Without it, orangutan populations are too small and isolated, and genetic resilience is lost.“They can live in these alternative [human dominated] landscapes, but it’s not the best habitat for them. If there’s enough food, they will survive and breed, but they also have to have genetic flow. If they’re isolated they’re not viable [in the long term].”A Malaysian oil palm plantation. Scientists have found that orangutans can coexist with farm laborers on plantations with mature oil palm trees, with few resulting human-animal conflicts occurring — just so long as there is good adjoining forest habitat. Orangutans would likely be unable to cross the pictured river, unless rope bridges were provided. Photo by Rhett A. ButlerLife in the oil palm treesOne type of agriculture rapidly replacing orangutan habitat is tree plantations — particularly oil palm plantations. And Ancrenaz and his colleagues are finding orangutans are doing better here too, within these human-planted arboreal environments, than previously thought.“We’re working at the interface of forest and oil palm plantation in mature forests,” he says. “We find that [orangutans] do fairly well [in mature oil palm trees] as long as they are not hunted.”The animals generally stay fairly near the edge of natural forest patches. “They will go into the plantation, they will build their nests in the palms, spend a few hours in the plantation and then come back to the forest,” Ancrenaz says. But the orangutans also occasionally move long distances through the oil palm landscape: “Sometimes, some orangutans, especially the males, will go very deep into the plantation — just walk, walk, walk for miles.”Similarly to the orangutans that Campbell-Smith studied, the mature oil palm plantation great apes learn to avoid people.Orangutans would rather stay in the forest canopy, but when trees are cut to make way for oil palm plantations, the animals are desperate for food. So they forage amid the young oil palms, which often leads to violent retaliation by growers. Photo courtesy of KOCP/HUTAN“The funny thing is, that when we speak to the workers, they most often don’t have any idea that orangutans are there,” says Ancrenaz. The oil palm plantation orangutans — like those on the small farms — have shifted their schedules to avoid conflict, becoming active in the very early morning or late afternoon or even at night, when workers have left the area.Another important reason workers aren’t aware of the animals’ presence is that the great apes aren’t doing any damage. “What we see is that when orangutans are going into the adult palms, they are not impacting the production at all,” Ancrenaz says. “Which means that in theory at least, orangutans can use [mature] oil palm plantation for dispersal and a supplemental source of food as well, [so long as] people are not harassing them, and killing them, and as long as there is enough [adjoining] natural forest maintained in this [human-altered] landscape.”Unfortunately for the great apes, the situation on mature oil palm plantations contrasts sharply with newly planted areas. When forest is first cleared, the orangutans’ natural food supply is destroyed, leaving only the young oil palm plants, and that is when most conflict occurs.“At this time, orangutans are going into the plantations to feed on the shoots of the young palms and destroy them, and people are really upset and kill them,” says Ancrenaz.At this stage, “coexistence” means moving the animals out of the plantation and away from the young plants as quickly as possible. Campbell-Smith — now the program director at International Animal Rescue (IAR) — is utilizing knowledge gained from her past work in Sumatra, and applying similar conflict avoidance methods in Borneo.There, IAR is helping oil palm companies develop wildlife response plans, plans that include Campbell-Smith’s cannon gun noise deterrent. “Teams steer the orangutans back into the forest, so there’s no [crop] damage and no negative repercussions for the orangutans,” she says.Long-term, the lack of negative repercussions is less sure, because orangutans eating young palms is a symptom of a bigger problem, habitat loss: “They only do that when there’s no fruit left in the little forest patches they are stranded in,” she says. “This is when conflict happens.”From 1973–2010, Borneo lost 39 percent of its forests, and estimates say that another 37 percent of orangutan-suitable habitat will be converted to agricultural use there through 2025. Similarly, 60 percent of habitat suitable for Sumatran orangutans was lost between 1985 and 2007. If current trends continue, both species will have decreased in numbers by over 80 percent by 2025. Photo courtesy of KOCP/HUTANPlanning aheadThe conflict-avoidance strategies developed by Ancrenaz, Campbell-Smith and others are proving useful, but those practice need to be spread more widely to help more orangutans. One thing that’s crucial is education for the people who do the actual coexisting.It can come as a surprise to Westerners to learn that farm workers in Indonesia or Malaysia know little more about orangutans than we do. But that’s because these laborers rarely see these big animals. And when they do encounter them, they often panic, and overreact out of irrational fear — much as a Westerner might when encountering a bat flying about at night in a suburban home.Campbell-Smith says that Asian women in particular are fearful of orangutans, partly based on folklore that the great apes kidnap and rape human females. And, interestingly, that fear affects how male farmers respond to crop damage — the researcher fond that farmers are far more tolerant of orangutans if none of their family is afraid of them.But even without the misconceptions born out of folklore, orangutans are still big and potentially scary animals, and education is proving to be the key to not having a violent defensive response to their sudden appearance amid the oil palms.Locals, says Campbell-Smith, need a better understanding of orangutan behavior and ecology. For example, in a human-altered landscape, the remaining trees often aren’t close enough together for the great apes to move freely through the canopy, so the animals may need to come down to the ground to get from one tree to another.This is often the case when people and animal meet, with the human afraid of a potential attack, while all the orangutan wants is to get up the next tree and away.“If you see them on the ground, just give them space,” Campbell-Smith tells people. “They’re an arboreal species. They only come to the ground when they have to. Most of the time, they want to get off the ground as quickly as possible.”An understanding of basic animal behaviors is also necessary for farmers wanting to use conflict mitigation strategies effectively, even with something as simple as noise deterrence. “If you keep firing these [cannon] guns, and the orangutan has nowhere to go, you’ll make the [conflict] situation worse,” she says. “We train farmers to understand that they should look around and think about how the animal is going to move.” In this way, the apes can be safely steered away from crops and conflict.An orangutan adult with young. To assure genetic resilience, it is important that orangutan populations separated by fragmented habitat be able to meet and mate. That’s why connectivity — whether it be via a forest corridor or a fire hose bridge over a stream — is so important to the future of these animals. Photo courtesy of KOCP/HUTANPeople often also simply need to learn about the plight these animals are in, so as to gain empathy. Some people in Campbell-Smith’s study area didn’t know that the great apes were endangered and protected by law, or how difficult it is to relocate orangutans because there isn’t enough forest left for them to move into. Having this information directly affected farmers’ attitudes: “They became more tolerant, the more knowledge they gained,” Campbell-Smith says.The ideal, going forward, would be to stop destroying orangutan habitat. But given that this is unlikely — considering the global agribusiness and oil palm boom — then farmers, plantation workers, and the public will need to learn how to lessen impacts on the land, how to adapt agricultural lands to share them better with wildlife, and how to employ conflict-avoidance strategies.Part of Campbell-Smith’s job now is working with agribusiness companies to help their employees think more about the forest fragmentation problem from the outset, and to plan how to allow for connectivity and coexistence.“We encourage [the companies] to have a conservation mindset when they’re producing their business model,” she says. “It should not be an afterthought.”FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.The orangutans of Borneo and Sumatra are in severe decline due to the loss of habitat. If these animals are to survive for decades to come, we will need to develop techniques to help them coexist with humans within agricultural landscapes. Photo © Miran Campbell-Smith Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredcenter_img Article published by Glenn Schererlast_img read more

Brazil’s deforestation “sheriff” has been fired

first_imgArticle published by Mike Gaworecki Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored A little more than a year after being named Brazil’s deforestation “sheriff,” Thelma Krug has reportedly been fired after a dispute over how trends in forest destruction are monitored in the country.Climate Home’s Claudio Angelo reports from Brasilia that government officials told members of the press that Krug had “expressed her interest in leaving” in order to “dedicate more time to her attributions at IPCC” — but that sources say Krug’s dismissal was actually the result of a dispute with vice-minister Marcelo Cruz, who questioned the deforestation data produced by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), where Krug is a senior scientist.Brazil has already named Krug’s replacement: Jair Schmitt, a biologist with the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), Brazil’s equivalent of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, where he oversees the agency’s environmental inspections. There’s been a major shakeup in the Brazilian government’s anti-deforestation department.A little more than a year after being named Brazil’s deforestation “sheriff,” Thelma Krug has reportedly been fired after a dispute over how trends in forest destruction are monitored in the country.Climate Home’s Claudio Angelo reports from Brasilia that government officials told members of the press that Krug had “expressed her interest in leaving” in order to “dedicate more time to her attributions at IPCC.” But Angelo writes: “Sources say, however, that the removal happened after a row with vice-minister Marcelo Cruz, who questioned the deforestation data produced by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), where Krug is a senior scientist.”Krug is also a well-respected climate scientist who serves as a vice chair of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and will apparently be staying on in her other role at INPE.The firing comes as the deforestation rate in Brazil is on the rise once again after a decade of sharp declines. Last year, numbers released by INPE revealed that deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest had jumped 29 percent over the previous year, making 2015-2016 the year with the highest level of Amazon destruction since 2008. The rate of primary forest loss in the Brazilian Amazon last year was 75 percent higher than it was in 2012, when deforestation was at the lowest level measured since annual record-keeping began in 1988.Weakened environmental regulations, dry conditions, and Brazil’s ongoing economic slump are considered some of the chief factors contributing to the rising rate of deforestation in the country.Even as the rate of forest loss has risen in the Brazilian Amazon, the country’s official monitoring system has been subject to increasing criticism for failing to measure new drivers of forest destruction. An October 2016 study, for instance, found that Brazil’s Monitoring Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by Satellite Project, commonly referred to as PRODES, did not detect nearly 9,000 square kilometers (about 3,475 square miles) of rainforest that were cleared between 2008 and 2012 — a deforested area roughly the size of Puerto Rico.PRODES is only able to detect deforested areas larger than 6.25 hectares (close to 15.5 acres) that occur in primary forest areas, meaning conversion of secondary forests, clearing by smallholders, and forests degraded by logging are excluded from the annual tally.According to Christian Poirier, a program director for Oakland, California-based non-profit Amazon Watch, “The dismissal of Thelma Krug reflects a growing wariness that the Brazilian government’s tools for monitoring deforestation are not keeping pace with the diverse and sophisticated methods used by loggers to avoid detection.”The spike in Amazon deforestation shows that perpetrators of illegal deforestation in the rainforest are quite capable of circumventing the PRODES monitoring system, Poirier added. “These shortcomings call for a more comprehensive and aggressive approach to both measuring illegal deforestation and punishing its culprits.”Brazil has already named Krug’s replacement: Jair Schmitt, a biologist with the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), Brazil’s equivalent of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, where he oversees the agency’s environmental inspections.Schmitt is known as a “hardliner” who is credited with levying a $16-million fine against Spanish bank Santander last year over its financing of illegal deforestation, according to Climate Home.While Poirier sees no reason to celebrate the firing of Krug, he does say that Schmitt being named as her replacement is a hopeful sign. “The hiring of Jair Schmitt is encouraging, given his assertive leadership on environmental monitoring and enforcement,” he said.Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Photo by Rhett A Butler.CITATIONRichards, P., Arima, E., VanWey, L., Cohn, A., & Bhattarai, N. (2016). Are Brazil’s Deforesters Avoiding Detection? Conservation Letters. doi:10.1111/conl.12310Follow Mike Gaworecki on Twitter: @mikeg2001FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.center_img Amazon, Amazon Destruction, Amazon Rainforest, Deforestation, Environment, Forests, Rainforests, Tropical Forests last_img read more

Central Africa’s ivory trade shifts underground, according to new report

first_imgAnimals, China wildlife trade, China’s Demand For Resources, Conservation, Corruption, Elephants, Endangered Species, Environment, Extinction, Forest Elephants, Governance, Ivory, Ivory Trade, Law Enforcement, Mammals, Poaching, Rainforest Animals, Rainforests, Research, Saving Species From Extinction, Tropical Forests, United Nations, Wildlife, Wildlife Conservation, Wildlife Trade Article published by John Cannon Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredcenter_img A series of undercover investigations by the NGO TRAFFIC over several years in five Central African countries has revealed a shift in the region from local markets for ivory to an ‘underground’ international trade.The resulting report, published Sept. 7, finds that organized crime outfits, aided by high-level corruption, are moving ivory out of Central African to markets abroad, especially in China and other parts of Asia.A 2013 study found that elephant numbers in Central Africa’s forests dropped by 62 percent between 2002 and 2011. The ivory trade in Central Africa appears to be diminishing, according to a new report from TRAFFIC, a U.K.-based watchdog NGO. But that finding might be misleading, say the authors, as surging demand for ivory now comes from beyond these countries’ borders.“The generally positive news contained in this report about the decline of Central African ivory markets needs to be weighed against the fact that, throughout this sub-region, there are still many issues to be addressed and underlying trade dynamics may be shifting beyond local markets,” said Sone Nkoke, a wildlife project officer with TRAFFIC and the lead author of the report, in a statement.In a series of undercover investigations supported by WWF and the U.S. and French governments over several years, TRAFFIC researchers tracked the near-disappearance in five Central African countries of open ivory markets. But the conversations and interactions they had with traders, vendors, and middlemen during the research also revealed that Gabon, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of Congo, and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are integral sources and waypoints in the international ivory trade.Ivory confiscated by the Ministry of Forests and Wildlife in Cameroon from poachers and held in store. Photo and caption © WWF / Mike Goldwater courtesy of TRAFFICIn the region, authorities confiscated nearly 54,000 kilograms (119,050 pounds) of ivory in Central Africa, representing ivory from more than 5,700 elephants. The authors estimate that about four times that much is leaking out of Central African borders. TRAFFIC published its findings on Sept. 7.A 2013 study found that elephant numbers in the region’s forests dropped by 62 percent between 2002 and 2011. On the continent, WWF estimates that one elephant is killed every 15 minutes for its ivory, and some experts fear that the animal could face extinction within a decade if poaching continues at current rates.Of the five countries that are the focus of the TRAFFIC report, only Cameroon still has a legal ivory trade. The remaining countries have outlawed it. That step, banning the sale of ivory within a country’s borders, seems to have provided the foundation of a deterrent, at least for its open sale in most of the countries.“Law enforcement efforts and increasing interventions from the authorities were highlighted throughout the region by retailers and carvers as having a detrimental impact on the ivory business,” the authors wrote.The authors report a shift in demand, away from local demand for carved ivory and toward international, “underground” demand for raw ivory products. It has even led African ivory carvers to switch to wood carving as their primary focus.The total amount of ivory found by the investigators in open markets in 2014 and 2015 totaled less than a kilogram in Cameroon, CAR, the Republic of Congo and Gabon. By contrast, they had found 400 kilograms in 2007, and over 900 kilograms in 1999.Surveys did reveal that markets in Kinshasa, DRC, typically had a steady supply of 400 to 500 kilograms over the same time period. However, in May 2017, the DRC government announced it would clamp down on its capital’s ivory market.African elephant pair (Loxodonta africana) greeting and interacting with trunk touching Botswana. Photo and caption © Martin Harvey / WWF courtesy of TRAFFICThe investigation revealed several common routes by which ivory gets from elephants killed in the region’s savannas and forests into the hands of international buyers. Though local middlemen are involved in the trade, the foreign buyers were often from China, but also from Vietnam and Malaysia.China remains the world’s largest market for ivory but has committed to ending the legal trade of ivory by the end of 2017.The rise in international demand for raw ivory — and the commensurate payoff for key players involved in getting ivory to countries such as China where consumer demand is high — has driven Africa’s elephants into crisis.“Real concerted efforts are needed to address the serious decline in elephant populations throughout Central Africa: this is no longer just a wildlife issue, but an ecological disaster strongly driven by highly-organized crime syndicates,” Nkoke said. “Criminals involved in international ivory trade are regularly exploiting weak [state] governance, and official collusion, confusion and corruption.”That corruption appears to make the ivory trade possible in some instances, according to TRAFFIC. The investigators reported that senior government officials and armed forces in DRC are involved in procuring ivory.Central African countries and the 11 capital cities visited during the surveys. Image and caption courtesy of TRAFFICA seller told TRAFFIC researchers that government officials and UN peacekeepers — soldiers sent from other countries by the UN to help quell conflicts — have “the luxury to move around the country frequently,” allowing them to transport ivory from poached elephants to buyers in Kinshasa and beyond. Similarly, a customs official working in Kinshasa said that his office had found UN peacekeepers from African and Asian countries trying to smuggle ivory out of DRC.Even without this corruption, ineffective enforcement of laws intended to protect wildlife and stamp out the ivory trade hampers results. Researchers found that stockpiles of seized ivory in DRC are sometimes kept unprotected in government offices, where it could find its way into the hands of illicit traders.The report’s authors compiled a list of recommended actions. Many of these center on improved enforcement and alignment of national laws with the commitments the countries have made through regional and international mechanisms, such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the African Strategy on Combating Illegal Exploitation and Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora in Africa.“Clearly Central African countries face significant governance and enforcement challenges in regulating elephant poaching and ivory trafficking,” said Paulinus Ngeh, who directs the TRAFFIC Central Africa Regional Office in Cameroon, in the statement. “They urgently need to ramp up their efforts to implement a range of commitments that they have made at multiple international fora over the last ten years.”African elephant in silhouette against a sunset in Zimbabwe. Photo and caption © Martin Harvey / WWF courtesy of TRAFFICCITATIONMaisels, F., Strindberg, S., Blake, S., Wittemyer, G., Hart, J., Williamson, E. A., … & Bakabana, P. C. (2013). Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa. PloS one, 8(3), e59469.Banner image of a forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) by Thomas Breuer, CC BY 2.5, via Wikimedia CommonsFEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.Follow John Cannon on Twitter: @johnccannonlast_img read more

Supporting conservation by playing a game? Seriously? (commentary)

first_imgArticle published by Mike Gaworecki Can you answer important questions about conservation by playing a game? Yes, and it works.In August, ForDev, the research team I lead, was invited by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Congo Basin Office to facilitate a workshop of their Regional Working Group on High Conservation Values. FSC’s goal was to define regional indicators for the management of Intact Forest Landscapes (IFLs) within certified forest concessions.We combined the MineSet role-playing game with facilitation techniques to help members of the Working Group understand each other, integrate research outputs in their discussions, and support the decision-making process.This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay. Can you answer important questions about conservation by playing a game?Yes, and it works.In August, ForDev, the research team I lead, was invited by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Congo Basin Office to facilitate a workshop of their Regional Working Group on High Conservation Values. FSC’s goal was to define regional indicators for the management of Intact Forest Landscapes (IFLs) within certified forest concessions. How would the core zone be defined? What kind of management would be applied? How would this take into account the local communities? These are just some of the questions the Regional Working Group had to answer.We combined the MineSet role-playing game with facilitation techniques to help members of the Working Group understand each other, integrate research outputs in their discussions, and support the decision-making process.Members of the Regional working group discussing strategies in the MineSet game. Local populations (in yellow) are now living inside the concessions, and the managers need to consider this in their future strategies. Photo: © T. Cornioley, 2017.Why IFL mattersAn Intact Forest Landscape (IFL) is defined as a territory within today’s global extent of forest cover which contains forest and non-forest ecosystems minimally influenced by human economic activity, with an area of at least 500 km2 (50,000 ha) and a minimal width of 10 km (measured as the diameter of a circle that is entirely inscribed within the boundaries of the territory). – www.intactforests.org/concept.htmlThe above definition stems from the work of Peter Potapov, a researcher at the University of Maryland, and his team. Their work shows that the extent of these landscapes was reduced globally by 7.2 percent between 2000 and 2013. The causes of this fragmentation include industrial logging, agricultural expansion, fire, and mining. In the Congo Basin specifically, where the main driver is industrial logging (see below), the certification of logging concessions with the current standards failed to prevent further fragmentation.Regional reduction of IFL area (km2 × 103) and drivers of change. Source: Potapov et al., 2016.In view of this ongoing fragmentation of critical tropical forests, the 7th General Assembly of FSC in 2014 adopted Motion 65, calling for the integration of the concept of Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL) into the FSC management standards. This motion requires the identification of indicators and management norms at the national or regional level, failing which “a default indicator will apply that mandates the full protection of a core area of each IFL within the management unit. For this purpose, the core area of the IFL will be defined as an area of forest comprising at least 80% of the intact forest landscape falling within the FMU [Forest Management Unit]”(Motion 65 for the 2014 FSC General Assembly).To comply with Motion 65, the FSC Congo Basin Program established, in 2016, the Regional Working Group for the Congo Basin on High Conservation Values (RWG), screening more than 300 expert applications in the process.The RWG, coordinated by the FSC Congo Basin Program, is composed of three chambers, the environmental, the economic, and the social chambers, with four members each. The members are planners from FSC-certified logging companies, members of international conservation NGOs, representatives of local communities, and representatives of governments and the ComiFac (Central African Forest Commission). The RWG’s objectives included the development of indicators related to the identification and management of Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL) in the Congo Basin. But after more than one year of difficult and complex discussions, the negotiations were stalled. It seemed the process had reached an impasse.To attempt to break the deadlock, FSC invited us, a team of researchers from ETH Zurich (the university where ForDev is located) and the French research centre CIRAD, to facilitate the 4th workshop of the RWG. The meeting was organized in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, from August 21 to 25, 2017.Games, Strategies and AgreementsOn the first day of the workshop, we invited the participants to play the role of a CEO of a logging company: interacting with markets, ministries, and NGOs; planning their activities; and developing strategies to cope with the environmental, economic, and social impacts of their decisions. We used MineSet, a game about regional landscape change developed to explore the future of tropical forest landscapes in Central Africa. ForDev and its partners created MineSet as part of the CoForTips/CoforSet projects, twin research projects we just completed on the creation of scenarios of biodiversity for the forests of Central Africa.Participants choosing between different policy options. The accumulation of green stickers on the board demonstrates the progressive building of agreement between the participants. Photo: © C. Garcia, 2017.The players could witness how their decisions shaped the forest landscape. In five rounds, representing about 50 years, they turned a high-density forest landscape into low-density and open forest landscape mosaic. In the process, they created jobs, made benefits, fed the market tropical timber, and learned to cope with local communities and the demands from conservation agencies. This shared experience allowed the participants to develop a common understanding of the drivers of change in the system. It empowered the participants of the Working Group, giving them a common experience to draw upon, and putting them on a level playing field.The following two days, the participants used the game to define and explore policy and management options for the inclusion of Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL) in the Congo Basin. The game acted as a model to clarify key concepts, to illustrate the different situations they were discussing, and to explore the potential impacts of the options they were considering.What do participants say about it?“With the game it was possible to explain things that are difficult to understand and imagine in reality,” explains William Lawyer of the FSC Congo Basin Program.Even experts that have in-depth knowledge of the topic find this useful. “It was interesting to play and visualize something you think you know, but with a model it becomes obvious,” said Belmond Tchoumba, the Forest Program Director of WWF CARPO, Cameroon.Reaching agreement: Four of the five points of the joint declaration drafted by the Regional Working Group were accepted through unanimous votes. Photo: © T. Cornioley, 2017.“Going back and forth between game and reality helped to illustrate and clarify the concepts. The consensus was easier to find and the game allowed for a more constructive debate,” adds Edwige Eyang Effa from IRET-CENAREST, the Gabonese Research Institute on Tropical Ecology.The game brought clarity for others. “[It] helped us think, reduced the level of conflict and changed the mood of the debate,” according to Vincent Istace of the CIB-OLAM company.In three days, we helped the participants move from gridlock to a joint declaration on five points, four of them accepted through unanimous votes and the last one pending the discussions of the FSC General Assembly that took place in Vancouver last week.By preceding the negotiation process with a game session, the game became a tool to not only create a better understanding of the system, but also to establish a dialogue and facilitate the decision-making process.“In my opinion, we should continue [and play] one or two more rounds to see the strategies, […], and perhaps we could gain a little more time in the negotiations,” concludes Antoine Couturier of the company IFO.Play to negotiate. And play longer to reach faster and more robust agreements. It is not the game that mattered, but the discussion it enabled afterwards. This is the core of our approach and research. Bridging the gap between science, policy, and practice. Helping people make better decisions. Supporting better policy.CITATIONSPotapov, P., Hansen, M. C., Laestadius L., Turubanova S., Yaroshenko A., Thies C., Smith W., Zhuravleva I., Komarova A., Minnemeyer S., & Esipova E. (2016). The last frontiers of wilderness: Tracking loss of intact forest landscapes from 2000 to 2013. Science Advances, 2017; 3:e1600821. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600821Potapov P., Yaroshenko A., Turubanova S., Dubinin M., Laestadius L., Thies C., Aksenov D., Egorov A., Yesipova Y., Glushkov I., Karpachevskiy M., Kostikova A., Manisha A., Tsybikova E., & Zhuravleva I. (2008). Mapping the World’s Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing. Ecology and Society, 13(2).Claude Garcia leads the Forest Management and Development Research Group (ForDev) at ETH Zürich and is a senior scientist at CIRAD Montpellier. This commentary has been written with Céline Dillmann, Tina Cornioley, Juliette Chamagne, Helene Dessart and Fabien Quétier. Certification, Commentary, Conservation, Deforestation, Editorials, Environment, Forestry, Forests, Logging, Rainforest Logging, Rainforests, Researcher Perspective Series, Tropical Forests center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

COP23: U.S., wealthy nations curtail climate aid for developing world

first_imgThe small U.S. delegation sent by President Trump to the COP23 climate summit in Bonn has apparently led a successful effort to obstruct significant, much needed, climate change adaptation financing and loss-and-damage financing for the developing world.Over the past two weeks in Bonn, the U.S. provided cover for the other developed countries, especially coal-producing Australia, tar sands-producer Canada, and the European Union, as they curtailed offering financial climate aid to the world’s developing nations, including island nations whose existence is at risk from rising oceans.One victory: delegates agreed to draft language for Pre-2020 Ambitions, a measure requiring that developed countries be transparent about their current emissions and describe voluntary steps they will take prior to 2020 to further reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.It is now hoped by some that the issue of adaptation financing and loss-and-damage financing to the developing world will be finally effectively addressed at COP24 in Poland in December 2018. A platform of climate protest signs on the grounds of the U.N. campus at COP23 in Bonn, Germany. Photo by Justin CatanosoBONN, Germany – An anxious uncertainty hung in the air at the start of the 23rd annual United Nations climate summit two weeks ago: what role would the small U.S. negotiating team play in the era of Donald Trump, a climate denier who has forced the United States to become the only country on earth to reject the Paris Agreement?As the gavel falls ending COP23 on Friday, 17 November, the answer to that question will be apparent for all to see: obstruction. Obstruction by the world’s richest nation and the planet’s second-worst greenhouse gas emitter. For two weeks, the U.S. delegation has, by all accounts, worked to deny developing nations — vulnerable to, and victims of, global warming — the financial pathway they need to adapt to climate change or recover from climate-related losses and damages.Other wealthy nations, so-called developed countries, struggling with their own economic worries, immigration crises, or controversial energy dilemmas, have apparently followed the U.S. lead and fallen in line. At stake is the wide gap between the billions raised by developing nations and the billions more needed for developing countries to endure and adapt to global warming’s dire impacts — roughly $10.3B billion in cash has been raised so far toward a pledge of $100 billion a year starting in 2020, along with a pledge for access to financing from global banks.“Every day, the U.S. blocked progress in drafting understandings related to adaptation financing and loss-and-damage financing,” Harjeet Singh, a climate change expert with London-based ActionAid, told Mongabay. “We thought the U.S. would be far more sympathetic after the disasters they faced [with hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria]. They now understand what loss and damage is. But we didn’t see their sensitivity level going up.”Singh, an observer to the discussions, said the cast of U.S. negotiators shuffled throughout COP23. The State Department announced Tuesday, 14 November, that top negotiator Tom Shannon would not travel to Bonn. State Department climate staffer Trigg Talley, who has served under Republican and Democratic administrations, left early. But that didn’t mean that the delegation lacked influence as it sought to deprive the world’s poorest countries — the nations being most impacted by climate change — from receiving help from the world’s richest.“No permanent work stream has been approved on any finance issue, which means helping the climate victims,” Harjeet said. “Action was repeatedly blocked by the U.S., which led the pack. And the European Union, Canada and Australia hid behind the U.S. and let this happen.”Harjeet Singh of ActionAid. Photo by Justin CatanosoAdam Bandt, a Green Party member of the Australian parliament, was unwilling to place all the blame with the United States. He pointed out that a top political priority for his government is the gigantic Adani company open pit Carmichael coal mine and rail project in Queensland, which will export its coal to plants in India serving serving 100 million people. Australians oppose the mine, but Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull favors using taxpayer funds and money borrowed from China to make it happen. The mine’s coal could produce an estimated 7.7 billion tons of greenhouse gas, and is seen by environmentalists as a “climate bomb.”“Australia is the chief blocker at this COP,” Bandt said. “On loss-and-damage, on adaptation, on pre-2020 Ambition: Australia has done everything it could to cover up that [carbon] pollution is rising in our country year on year. We are doing everything we can to avoid accountability and thwart further action. It’s incredibly disappointing.”Global emissions rising againThose intent on putting a positive spin on COP23 (Conference of the Parties) note that 49 nations, including the United States, have peaked their carbon emissions through greater energy efficiencies, less burning of coal and shifts to renewable energy.Solar and wind is now on par with natural gas and cheaper than coal, and capacity is being added rapidly by scores of nations, creating thousands of jobs. The scale of renewables, though, is not yet nearly enough to begin tipping the carbon imbalance fueling global warming.A report released Monday, 13 November, found that after three years of stable carbon emissions globally, 2017 emissions worldwide will be at an all-time high. This year is also expected to join the ranks of hottest years on record.UN General Secretary Antonio Guterres reminded delegates that carbon emissions must fall by 25 percent by 2020 to have a chance of meeting the Paris Agreement goal of holding global temperature below a 2 degree Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) rise by 2100 – an improbable achievement considering the performance by developed nations at this COP, and considering the insufficient voluntary NDC’s (Nationally Determined Contributions) set by the world’s nations.Australian Green Party parliament member Adam Bandt talking with Anote Tong, former president of the Pacific island nation of Kiribati. Photo by Justin CatanosoCOP participants underscore the ever-present divide, and tension, between fewer than two dozen developed countries (and leading carbon polluters) and the rest of the world. Anote Tong, former president of the Pacific Island nation of Kiribati, lives with that tension.“We continue to focus talks on keeping temperatures from rising 1.5 degrees Celsius [2.7 degrees Fahrenheit],” Tong told Mongabay. “It’s not very relevant for countries like mine for whom the science indicates that whatever the rise in global temperatures — even if its zero; even if carbon emissions are cut to zero — we will be under water well before the end of this century.”Tong stated that politicians, with their short-term vision and re-election concerns, are poorly suited to effectively grapple with a costly, current and future challenge like climate change. He points out that while his country is a primary victim of sea-level rise, it bears little responsibility for the fossil-fuel emissions tied to global warming. And it vitally needs financial assistance.“Change in our country must be very radical — like rising up above sea level,” Tong said. “If you give me $1 billion, I can maybe survive another 10 years. Our response in principle is to recognize the injustice that is being done and address it. Forget being a political leader. Think like a father. A grandfather. A human being with a moral sense of justice.”Because Fiji is the host country for COP23 in Bonn, large photos depicting scenes around the Pacific island nation are on display in every venue. But glossy photographs aside, summit negotiators from developed nations still dragged their feet when it came to offering significant financial support to the highly vulnerable island nations. Photo by Justin CatanosoVictory for Pre-2020 AmbitionsThere had been some hope that, because COP23 was led by the Pacific island country of Fiji, a vulnerable nation, that negotiators would be more sympathetic to, and better address, the plight of developing nations’ financial needs. But only one notable victory can be claimed.With heavy pressure from China and India (the world’s worst and third-worst carbon polluters), delegates agreed to draft language for the so-called Pre-2020 Ambitions. This measure requires that developed countries be transparent about their current emissions and describe what voluntary steps they will take prior to 2020 to further reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.China and India, considered developing countries, are both investing heavily in solar energy, and China is closing coal-fired power plants, though primarily to deal with staggering air pollution. Other developing countries are eager for wealthy, industrialized nations to do more, sooner, to curb emissions; the Pre-2020 Ambitions draft lends some pressure to do so.“The agreement is important for many reasons,” said Singh of ActionAid. “We needed to rebuild some trust. Mutual trust has been lost between developed and developing nations. One of the reasons, of course, was the U.S. threatening to pull out of the Paris Agreement.”Germany and France came in for their share of criticism as well Wednesday.French President Marcron with UN General Secretary Guterres. Photo courtesy of the UNFCCCFrench President Emmanuel Macron and German Prime Minister Angela Merkel addressed the assembled delegates in the main meeting hall. Both spoke eloquently about the reality of climate change and the need to work harder on solutions. But neither offered any indication of stepping up their carbon-reduction INDC pledges, or in the case of Germany, reiterating its pledge to phase out coal by 2030.“Mrs. Merkel had one thing to do today,” said Jennifer Morgan, executive director of Greenpeace International. “She needed to come to Bonn and show she had heard the suffering of the people of the Pacific and around the world and would do the responsible thing and end coal. She did not deliver this.“The chancellor’s climate leadership credibility was already hanging in the balance, and continues to do so. She talked of trust and reliability, but where is her reliability?”“If France really wants to remain the guardian of the Paris Agreement,” added Lucille Dufour, policy adviser for Reseau Action Climate in France, “it must bring forth all of its political weight to drive forward progress on key issues like adaptation and loss-and-damage.”To Germany’s credit, it did on the first day of COP23 pledge 50 million euros to the 240 million euros (roughly US $340 million in total) it has already pledged to the Adaptation Fund, making it the largest contributor. Germany also pledged 50 million euros (roughly US $58 million) to the Least Developed Nations Fund.But COP23 largely ends in a quandary, with the developed and developing nations in an argument as old as the Kyoto Protocol, as they continue to squabble like shipwrecked passengers in a sinking lifeboat over who should bail and how much — even as the little boat rapidly takes on water. Then as now, according to many COP23 participants, it is the U.S. and the wealthy nations who are delaying doing their fair share of the heavy lifting.Some COP participants remain hopeful that the issue of adaptation financing and loss-and-damage financing to the developing world will be finally effectively addressed at COP24 in Poland in December 2018.Justin Catanoso is a regular contributor to Mongabay and a professor of journalism at Wake Forest University in North Carolina, USA. Follow him on twitter @jcatanosoFEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.A reminder of what’s at stake: an inflatable earth stands alone on the UN campus of COP23 in Bonn. Some participants are setting big hopes on seeing major progress at COP24, a little over a year from now in Poland. Photo by Justin Catanoso Carbon Emissions, Climate Activism, Climate Change, Climate Change Denial, Climate Change Negotiations, Climate Change Policy, Climate Change Politics, climate finance, Environment, Environmental Economics, Environmental Ethics, Environmental Policy, Environmental Politics, Global Environmental Crisis, Global Warming, Global Warming Mitigation, Green, Impact Of Climate Change Article published by Glenn Scherercenter_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Harnessing the power of camera trap bycatch data to monitor threatened species (commentary)

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Historically, due to a lack of data, estimates of sun bear population trends have been little more than educated guesses made by experts. A major obstacle to monitoring population trends is that there are only a handful of sun bear-focused studies that collect data on population dynamics.Satellite imagery of tree cover change through time is available globally, as are bycatch camera trap data. There are many camera trap studies going on within the sun bear’s range that collect huge volumes of bycatch data, which are data on species that are not the primary focus of the study.With these tools at our disposal, it seemed that a more objective, data-driven measure of sun bear population trends was possible, and we believe that the innovate approach we ended up using has broad potential.This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay. The sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), a charismatic tropical Ursid, occurs throughout Southeast Asia, where rapid deforestation and land-use change driven by human activities is threatening the future of this extraordinary species.Historically, due to a lack of data, estimates of this bear’s population trends have been little more than educated guesses made by experts. The IUCN Red List assessment of sun bears’ conservation status, which was updated this year, relies on a single expert to ‘guesstimate’ population trends in some countries, and in others, such as Brunei, there were no estimates available at all.A major obstacle to monitoring sun bear population trends is that some threats are impossible to quantify. No one knows how many sun bears are killed by humans each year, as all hunting of the species is illegal and therefore unreported except in rare cases when poachers are caught. Another obstacle to monitoring trends is that there are only a handful of sun bear-focused studies that collect data on population dynamics.What is quantifiable is sun bear range, as sun bears live in tropical forests. With satellite imagery we can measure the extent of sun bear habitat as well as changes in the extent of that habitat over time. Furthermore, there are many camera trap studies going on within the sun bear’s range that collect huge volumes of bycatch data, which are data on species that are not the primary focus of the study. These data may have no value to the researchers who collected them, but may be useful to other people, for different reasons.Satellite imagery of tree cover change through time is available globally, as are bycatch camera trap data from multiple study sites from within the sun bear’s range. With these tools at our disposal, it seemed that a more objective, data-driven measure of sun bear population trends was possible, and we believe that the innovative approach we ended up using has broad potential.Using a massive conglomeration of camera trap bycatch data shared among multiple research groups and measures of tree cover change derived from globalforestwatch.org, myself and other researchers, from the University of Minnesota, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Bear Specialist Group, and other leading conservation research organizations, modeled the relationship between sun bear detection rates and tree cover. Because there were no long-term camera trap studies from within a single study site, we used data collected from many different study sites, and we assumed that patterns across space reflected patterns through time.We found that sun bears select for areas of high tree density. We estimated that if a patch of 80 percent tree cover was degraded into 20 percent tree cover, bear density in that patch would be reduced by almost 50 percent. These declines may be driven by several factors, including lower food supply, higher competition for resources, less shelter, and a higher risk of hunting by humans; all factors associated with degraded habitat. Using the relationship between sun bears and tree cover, we created the world’s first data-driven estimate of global sun bear population decline by inferring temporal trends in sun bear abundance in response to tree cover loss between 2000 and 2014.Our findings, published in PLOS ONE, suggest that sun bear populations have likely undergone a significant range-wide decline. Casting our estimates forward 30 years from the year 2000, we project population declines of more than 50 percent in Malaysia and Indonesia. A decline of this magnitude puts the sun bear’s status within their southern range at the level of ‘endangered,’ according to criteria developed by the IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species.More than just revealing sun bear population trends, however, our study demonstrated the potential of camera trap bycatch data, which are accumulating in vast quantities through space and time. However, despite the potential uses of this data, analyses of this scale are rare. This rarity may be attributed to the inherent complexities involved in sharing and interpreting data among multiple research groups. During our study of sun bear population trends, it took us a long time to gather, sort, and combine datasets, and large quantities of data were lost due to deficiencies in data management techniques.Therefore, in a second article, published in Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation, we highlighted the challenges we encountered while gathering and analyzing bycatch camera trap data from multiple projects. In this article, we aimed to draw attention to the problem of non-standardization of data management and poor data management in general, as well as to offer insights into how researchers can improve their practices to make it more practical for others to use their data for secondary research. We present a set of succinct, user-friendly recommendations to improve the management of camera data for future data-sharing efforts. Furthermore, our paper also includes a unique summary of the multiple tools and features associated with most current camera trap data management software platforms (e.g., software/internet requirements, data capacity, cost), allowing potential users to choose which software best suits their needs.Our recommendations are broad — aimed, for instance, at individual researchers working with small data sets in simple spreadsheets and with no internet access, as well as at multi-collaborator projects that handle millions of images. We recommend that researchers adopt a non-proprietary and transferable data storage format to store data, instead of relying on excel, which may one day become obsolete (like the floppy disk). We also suggest that researchers accompany all data with metadata (i.e. the data about the data), a simple but crucial step that means deeply buried data can be interpreted in the future, without the need to contact the person who created the database. Our recommendations include further simple (but crucial) pointers on database structure, and how to store time, date, and geographical information — missing information on where the cameras were placed, when they were active, and for how many nights can render the data meaningless.We also offer solutions for researchers overwhelmed with massive volumes of data, who may be forced to cherry-pick data of interest and leave bycatch data unclassified and never made publicly available. For example, there are several citizen science platforms (e.g. Snapshot Serengeti, Camera CATalogue, zooniverse.org) that feature innovative crowd-sourced solutions to handling massive volumes of camera trap images.These publications join a growing global movement towards collaborative wildlife science and echo calls to improve the usability of camera trap bycatch data, to share data, and to further the ability to monitor threatened species with replicable, data-driven science.Photo collage courtesy of Lorraine Scotson. Photo Credits: Oliver Wearn and Tom Gray (WWF Cambodia & Wildlife Alliance).CITATIONSScotson, L., Fredriksson, G., Ngoprasert, D., Wong, W.M., Fieberg, J. 2017a. Projecting range-wide sun bear population trends using tree cover and camera-trap bycatch data. PLOS ONE 12(9): e0185336. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.018533Scotson, L. Johnston, L.R., Iannarilli, F., Wearn, O.R., Mohd-Azlan, J., Wong, W.M., Gray, T.N.E., Dinata, Y., Suzuki, A., Willard, C.E., Frechette, J., Loken, B., Steinmetz, R., Mossbrucker, A.M., Clements, G.R., Fieberg, F. 2017b. Best practices and software for the management and sharing of camera trap data for small and large scales studies. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation, in early view, doi:10.1002/rse2.54Lorraine Scotson, PhD, is a graduate from the Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology at the University of Minnesota. Animals, Bears, Camera Trapping, Commentary, Conservation Technology, Editorials, Environment, Mammals, Research, Researcher Perspective Series, Technology, Technology And Conservation, Wildlife center_img Article published by Mike Gaworeckilast_img read more